From Tools for Conviviality (1973) to the Second Convivialist Manifesto (2020)

by Marc Humbert. I will first recall the context which led to the second convivialist manifesto, then I will sketch the evolution of the world between the two publications, Tools for conviviality in 1973 and the Second Manifesto in 2020. I will present in part III, Illich’s book as a Critical Theory and I will finally link all that to the Convivialism’s principles.